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International Union of Vacuum Science, Technique, and Applications  

Course Programme

Seven courses will be held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Main Campus on 1 July, 2007. One course will be held at Stockholm International Fairs on 2-3 July, 2007.

Course Information (click the link below)


Title: MRAM, Spin Torque Oscillators and Spintronic Phenomena, 1 July

This course has been cancelled.


Title: Nanoparticles from the gas phase

This course has been cancelled.


Title: Nanotribology and nanomechanics and applications to MEMS/NEMS and Bio-MEMS/Bio-NEMS

Time:7 hours

Description and objectives

Nanotechnology undoubtedly is expected to be of major industrial significance. The nanotechnology is still in its infancy and the emphasis to date has been on the fabrication and laboratory demonstration of individual components. The field of MEMS/NEMS has expanded considerably over the last decade. Micro/Nanosystems have begun to be commercially used. MEMS/NEMS devices are produced by various lithographic and nonlithographic fabrication processes. Silicon-based MEMS/NEMS devices are made from single-crystal silicon, LPCVD polysilicon films and other ceramic films. For high temperature applications, SiC and other films are being developed to replace polysilicon films. There are bioadhesion issues in BioMEMS/BioNEMS which need to be addressed. Tribology of various devices which require relative motion is of importance.

The scale of operation and large surface-to-volume ratio of the devices result in very high retarding forces such as friction and adhesion that seriously undermine the performance and reliability of the devices. These are tribological phenomena that need to be studied and understood at the micro- to nanoscales. In addition, materials for these devices must exhibit good micro/nanoscale tribological and mechanical properties. There is a need to develop lubricants and identify lubrication methods that are suitable for these devices. Measurement and evaluation of mechanical properties of micro/nanoscale structures is essential to help address reliability issues. Using atomic force microscopy-based techniques, researchers have conducted micro/nanotribological studies of materials and lubricants for use in these devices. Mechanical properties of nanoscale structures have also been measured. In addition, component level testing has also been carried out to aid in better understanding of the observed tribological phenomena in these devices. A fundamental understanding of nanoscale tribology and mechanics of MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/NEMS is essential as these devices proliferate in the marketplace.

This course provides an introduction to Principles of Nanotribology and Nanomechanics followed by Applications to MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/BioNEMS.


I. Principles of Nanotribology and Nanomechanics

  • Introduction to Tribology
    Overview of Surface Roughness, Adhesion, Friction, Interface
    Temperatures, Wear, and Lubrication
  • Nanotribology, Nanomechanics and Material Characterization Studies Using
    Scanning Probe Microscopy
    Overview of Surface Imaging, Adhesion, Friction, Scratching, Wear,
    Indentation/Localized Deformation/Nanofabrication, and Lubrication

II. Adhesion and Stiction

  •  Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Solid-Solid Adhesion
  • Mechanisms of Liquid Mediated Contact
  • Adhesion Measurement Techniques
  • Lubrication Approaches and Typical Stiction Data
  • Examples of Methods to Reduce Adhesion and Stiction in Magnetic Storage Devices and MEMS/NEMS

III. Applications to MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/BioNEMS

  • Introduction
    Definition of MEMS/NEMS and characteristic dimensions
    Examples of MEMS/NEMS and BioMEMS/BioNEMS with Tribological Issues
    Importance of Mechanics of Nanostructures
  •  Nanotribological Studies of MEMS/NEMS Materials and Lubricants
  •  Bioadhesion Studies
  • Nanopatterned Surfaces for Superhydrophobicity
  • Device Level Studies
  •  Mechanics of Nanostructures

Course materials: Copies and a CD of all slides in the PowerPoint format will be provided before the class. Recommended text book: Bhushan, B., Nanotribology and Nanomechanics – An Introduction, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005.

Instructor: Bharat Bhushan, prof, Ohio State University, Columbus

Dr. Bharat Bhushan is an Ohio Eminent Scholar and The Howard D. Winbigler Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, a Graduate Research Faculty Advisor in the Department of Materials Science & Engineering, and the Director of the Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage & MEMS/NEMS (NLIM) at the Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. He holds two M.S., a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering/mechanics, an MBA, and three semi-honorary and honorary doctorates. His research interests are in nanotribology and nanomechanics and their applications to magnetic storage devices and MEMS/NEMS (Nanotechnology). He has authored 5 technical books, more than 70 handbook chapters, more than 600 technical papers in referred journals, and more than 60 technical reports, edited more than 40 books, and holds 16 U.S. and foreign patents. He is co-editor of Springer NanoScience and Technology Series and Microsystem Technologies – Micro- & Nanosystems and Information Storage & Processing Systems (formerly called Journal of Information Storage and Processing Systems). He has organized various international conferences and workshops. He is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards and international fellowships. He is a member of various professional societies, including the International Academy of Engineering (Russia).


Title: Introduction to Scanning Probe Microscopy - STM

Time: 6 hours

Description and objectives

This course is intended to give an overview about nanoparticles suspended in a gas phase, aerosols, their main properties, fabrication techniques and applications. The attendee will learn about the fundamentals of aerosol science and technology and about the great possibilities as well as the limitations of generation nanoparticles from the gas phase.


  • Introduction to surface and nano science.
  • Basic principles of STM and AFM
    Tunneling, force measurements and image formation
    Modes of operation for STM and AFM
  • Experimental set-up
  • Structural and electronic information from an image.
    What can we learn and what are the limitations?
    Theoretically generated images
    Diffusion barrier from STM-videos
  • Tunneling spectroscopy
    Capturing the electronic structure on a nanometer scale
    Single molecule characterization

Course materials: Lectures notes and reprints supplied by the instructor

Instructor: Mats Göthelid, PhD, Royal Institute of Technology

Doc M. Göthelid research concerns atomic and electronic structure of surfaces and surface reactions using scanning probe microscopy and different types of electron and X-ray spectroscopy. He has been teaching Surface Physics for more than 10 years.





Title: Ion scattering techniques and secondary ion mass spectrometry for material analysis

This course has been cancelled.


Title: Chemical routes to thin films

This course has been cancelled.


Title: High Resolution Analytical Microscopy of Nanomaterials and Thin Films

Time: 6 hours

Description and objectives

The properties of nanomaterials and thin films are governed by the fine scale microstructure. Therefore, it is important to extract information on the atomic scale. This course will give an overview of the abilities of atom probe and electron microscopy techniques to characterize the microstructure and microchemistry of materials with high resolution. Recent developments of the microscopy techniques of atom probe (AP), focused ion beam (FIB), scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) will be covered. Examples of applications in nanostructures and thin films will be presented.


SEM and FIB part (Mats Halvarsson):

  • Basic principles of electron and ion optics
  •  Instrumentation
  • Image formation
  • Contrast mechanisms in different imaging modes
  • Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)
  • n-situ ESEM experiments

AP part (Krystyna Stiller)

  • basic principles of: .
    a) imaging in AP
    b) chemical analysis in AP
  • 3-dimensionel AP
  • Advantages and limitations of AP- technique
  • Specimen preparation
  • Examples of applications

TEM (Eva Olsson)

  • Basic principles of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM)
  • Instrumentation
  • Image formation
  • Contrast mechanisms in different imaging modes
  • Electron diffraction
  • Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)
  • Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)
  • In-situ dynamic experiments

Course materials: Copies of powerpoint presentations.

Instructors: PhD. Mats Halvarsson, Prof. Eva Olsson and Prof. Krystyna Stiller work in the group for Microscopy and Microanalysis at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The general aim of the research of the group is to understand how the microstructure of materials (down to single atoms) influences their properties.

Mats Halvarsson’s main research tools are electron and ion microscopes and their add-on equipment. His research concerns hard, wear protective coatings produced by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and high temperature corrosion of materials such as Fe-Cr stainless steels, molybdenum disilicides and Fe-Cr-Al alloys.




Eva Olsson is mainly using advanced analytical microscopy to characterize the functional microstructure of materials including the characterization of structure and properties of individual defects. The interfaces are of particular interest due to their significant influence on properties and microstructural evolution. The goal is to formulate models with which the physical properties can be predicted and new devices tailored. The main research tool is analytical transmission electron microscopy and scanning probe techniques. The research activities include bulk and thin film oxides (e.g. ZnO, YBa2Cu3O7-x, SrTiO3, Al/AlOx/Al barriers, La0.67Sr0.33MnO3), photoactive nanostructures (e.g. gold and silver nanoparticles), magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes. The research spans from fundamental research to applied research in collaboration with industry.

Krystyna Stiller is especially interested in investigations of processes of phase transformations and high temperature oxidation. Special emphasis of her research is put to studies of the microstructure and composition of thin surface layers and grain boundaries. In her studies she uses both transmission electron microscopy and atom probe analysis. The last mentioned technique enables investigations of variation in material chemistry on a sub-nanometer scale with equal sensitivity for all elements. Krystyna Stiller has contributed to the development of the technique and its applications. She is working closely with the Swedish industry.



Course Programme at the Stockholm International Fairs, 2-3 July

Title: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA)

Time: 2 days, Monday and Tuesday (09:00 to 17:00)

Description and objectives

Scientists, engineers, students, and technicians who would like a detailed understanding of the use of XPS/ESCA for surface analysis should attend this course. Learn about optimizing the analysis of surfaces with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, approaches for qualitative and quantitative analysis, the types of problems that can be solved with XPS/ESCA, and the latest developments in instrumentation.


Day 1:

  • Introduction – terminology, surfaces, types of surfaces. 0.5 hour
  • The principles of XPS – production of photoelectrons, peak labeling, electronic figuration of atoms, atoms, molecules, solids, energy, spectra, Auger process, valence spectra, handbooks, books, surface sensitivity, information depth, sample handling, spin-orbit splitting, chemical shift, plasmons, multiplet splitting, shake-up. 3 hours
  • Instrumentation – dual anode, Bremsstrahlung, monochromatic source, electron energy analyzers, spectrum acquisition, energy resolution, scattering in analyzers, electron detectors, pulse counting, position sensitive detectors, small area analysis, area location, imaging XPS, methods, equipment and examples, vacuum system, samples, energy scale calibration. 3.5 hours.

Day 2:

  • Qualitative analysis – identification of elements, changing x-ray sources, charging, interpretation of chemical shift, relaxation effects, Auger parameter, peak widths, lineshapes. 2 hours
  • Quantitative analysis – sensitivity factors, ionization cross section, asymmetry parameter, analyzer transmission, reference spectra, intensities, background subtraction, detection limit, effect of thin overlayers. 2 hours
  • Artifacts – x-ray damage, charging, methods for charge control, ghost peaks. 0.5 hour
  • Data acquisition and processing – processing data, Tougaard background subtraction, satellite subtraction, peak area, lineshapes, curve fitting, deconvolution. 1 hour
  • Depth profiling – non-destructive and destructive methods, angle resolved XPS, diffraction, elastic scattering, thickogram, inelastic loss method, sputtering, depth calibration. 2 hours
  • Applications – some further examples of applications of XPS. 0.5 hours
  • Instrument selection and summary – factors to consider, general summary. 0.2 hours.

Course materials: Course notes

Instructor: PhD John T. Grant, Distinguished Research Scientist, University of Dayton.

John T. Grant has more than 35 years of experience in the field of surface science. His current interests include all forms of surface analysis, particularly electron spectroscopies, see:



Registration Fee for Courses

The cost for participating in the course programme at KTH main Campus on 1 July is:

Registration fee for Courses 1 July Excluding VAT Including VAT
Early registration fee, until 25 April 2 000 SEK 2 500 SEK
Late registration fee, after 25 April 2 500 SEK 3 125 SEK

You pay the registration fee once and you are then allowed to attend all courses in the course programme on the 1 July. Please follow the payment instructions carefully on the Payment page.

The cost for participating in the course programme on 2-3 July at Stockholm International Fairs is:

Registration fee for Course 2-3 July Excluding VAT Including VAT
Early registration fee, until 25 April 3 000 SEK 3 750 SEK
Late registration fee, after 25 April 3500 SEK 4 375 SEK

Please follow the payment instructions carefully on the Payment page.

Swedish tax legislation requires participants to pay their registration fee either including or excluding Swedish VAT. Therefore, please identify your category below and choose the appropriate alternative on the registration form.

Alternative 1: Including VAT
  • Registration fees paid by non-taxable entities (institutions/organisations etc) and private persons within the European Union.
  • All registration fees paid by participants or companies within Sweden.
  • All registration fees for accompanying persons.

Alternative 2: Excluding VAT

  • Registration fees paid by companies and other taxable entities (also including taxable institutions/organisations) within the European Union, except from Sweden. Please note that according to Swedish law, your company VAT No. must be stated on your registration form.
  • Alternative 3: Excluding VAT
  • All registration fees paid from countries outside the European Union

Swedish participants must always pay the registration fee including VAT. Hotels, social events and fee for accompanying persons must always be paid including VAT. Please note that Sweden is not a member of the European Monetary Union.

To on-line registration  please click here.




Last update: 27 June 2007